Pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate are converted by DOXP synthase (Dxs) to 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate, and by DOXP reductase (Dxr, IspC) to 2- C -methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP). The subsequent three reaction steps catalyzed by 4-diphosphocytidyl-2- C -methyl-D-erythritol synthase (YgbP, IspD), 4-diphosphocytidyl-2- C -methyl-D-erythritol kinase (YchB, IspE), and 2- C -methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (YgbB, IspF) mediate the formation of 2- C -methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclopyrophosphate (MEcPP). Finally, MEcPP is converted to ( E )-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate ( HMB-PP ) by HMB-PP synthase (GcpE, IspG), and HMB-PP is converted to isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) by HMB-PP reductase (LytB, IspH).
A number of studies have described the chemistry of calendula. The plant contains a number of oleanolic acid glycosides. 5 Flavonol and triterpene glycosides have been isolated from C. officinalis via high pressure chromatography. 6 , 7 Calendulin (also known as bassorin) has been identified in the plant as have sterols and fatty acids such as calendic acid. 8 , 9 , 10 Additionally, the plant contains triterpenoid in free and ester forms, 11 , 12 , 13 tocopherols, 14 mucilage, and a volatile oil. 2 Enzymatic activity of calendula extracts has been described. 15 The carotenoid pigments have been used as coloring agents in cosmetics and the volatile oil has been used in perfumes. 2 , 16 , 17
Isoprene itself does not undergo the building process, but rather activated forms, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP or also isopentenyl diphosphate) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP or also dimethylallyl diphosphate), are the components in the biosynthetic pathway. IPP is formed from acetyl-CoA via the intermediacy of mevalonic acid in the HMG-CoA reductase pathway . An alternative, totally unrelated biosynthesis pathway of IPP is known in some bacterial groups and the plastids of plants, the so-called MEP(2-Methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate)-pathway, which is initiated from C5-sugars. In both pathways, IPP is isomerized to DMAPP by the enzyme isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase.