Synthesis and metabolism of steroids in molluscs

Resveratrol is a wine phenolic that is known to interact with sirtuin proteins (mostly SIRT1) which is similar to leucine; the metabolites of KIC and HMB at are able to induce SIRT1 to 30-100% of baseline which is a comparable potency to 2-10μM resveratrol [25] although the combination of leucine () or HMB (μM) and resveratrol (200nM) is able to synergistically induce SIRT1 and SIRT3 activity in both adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells. [85] KIC appears to be a more potent stimulator than HMB, [25] and synergism appears to be greater with leucine than with HMB (possibly indicative of KIC metabolism). [85]

There are at least four leukotriene receptors. Two receptors have been characterized that bind LTB 4 called BLT 1 and BLT 2 and two receptors that bind the peptidoleukotrienes (cysteinyl leukotrienes) called CysLT1 and CysLT2. The BLT 1 receptor is encoded by the LTB4R gene located on chromosome –q12 and is composed of 3 exons that generates two variant mRNAs that both encode a protein of 352 amino acids. The BLT 2 receptor is encoded by the LTB4R2 gene which is located on chromosome 14q12 and is composed of 2 exons generate two variant mRNAs that both encode a protein of 358 amino acids. The CysLT1 receptor is encoded by the CYSLTR1 gene located on the X chromosome (–) and is composed of 5 exons that generates four variant mRNAs, each of which encode the same 337 amino acid protein. The CysLT2 receptor is encoded by the CYSLTR2 gene located on chromosome and contains a single exon encoding a protein of 346 amino acids.

The oxaloacetate/aspartate family of amino acids is composed of lysine , asparagine , methionine , threonine , and isoleucine . Aspartate can be converted into lysine, asparagine, methionine and threonine. Threonine also gives rise to isoleucine . All of these amino acids contain different mechanisms for their regulation, some being more complex than others. All the enzymes in this biosynthetic pathway are subject to regulation via feedback inhibition and/or repression at the genetic level. As is typical in highly branched metabolic pathways, there is additional regulation at each branch point of the pathway. This type of regulatory scheme allows control over the total flux of the aspartate pathway in addition to the total flux of individual amino acids. The aspartate pathway uses L-aspartic acid as the precursor for the biosynthesis of one fourth of the building block amino acids. Without this pathway, protein synthesis would not be possible.

Synthesis and metabolism of steroids in molluscs

synthesis and metabolism of steroids in molluscs

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